multifaceted classroom management

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Following was written in 2005 in the context of the Strengthening Capacity in Basic Education in Western China project. 

Multifaceted Classroom Behavior Management

Effective classroom management is critical to an effective learning situation.  For classroom management to be successful in an SCI context, it must be approached holistically.  Classroom management should emphasize “proactive” strategies which prevent behavior problems from starting, but should also include “reactive” strategies for what to do if problems do occur.  Below are some of the aspects of classroom management that should be considered by all teachers.

Pedagogical Relationships

Pedagogical relationships are the foundation of effective classroom management in an SCI context.  When teachers and students have developed appropriate pedagogical relationships, the students are much more likely to behave well and respond promptly to teachers’ words.  Developing pedagogical relationships requires that teachers demonstrate their caring, patience, and assertiveness in their interactions with students.  Let students know that you are firm and confident in conducting the class, but that you respect them and care about their development.

Here are some tips for developing pedagogical relationships:

  • Be trustworthy and honest with students
  • Follow through on what you say
  • Model the kind of behaviors and respect you want students to display
  • Cultivate a cordial and amiable climate with your students, but make it clear that your relationship with them is not the same as a parent-child relationship, or a child-child friendship
  • Let your students know that you want the best for them, and will do everything you can to support their learning

Classroom Climate

Creating a positive classroom climate is also fundamental to classroom management.  Students should feel comfortable and energized in your classroom.  This depends a lot on your interactions with them.  It’s important to remember that happy students and a favorable climate are not the goal of a good learning environment, they are the product of a good learning environment.  If students are engaged in great learning experiences, and are successful in those experiences, a great climate naturally develops.

That said, here are some things that you can do to facilitate the development of a good climate:

  • Smile and greet students when they come in
  • Display students’ work on the walls
  • Keep the classroom bright and clean
  • Encourage students to take ownership for the classroom by having them help clean it and organize it, and also have them make decisions about how to arrange the classroom objects and materials
  • Use engaging activities which capture student interest
  • Keep the pace of the class quick
  • Pay attention to all learners, especially those who may be marginalized in some way
  • Try to have a good laugh with your students at least once per day. Occasional humour is helpful, sarcasm is not.  Humour should never be at the expense of a student.

Expectations

Students like structure because they like to know what is expected of them.  In general, students will do what is expected of them if they are clear about what that is.  For this reason, clear expectations are usually a more effective way of managing student behavior than rules.  What’s more, positive expectations are high expectations; they should set a realistic challenge for students to work towards.  Students need to know that you believe they are capable of great things, and expect them to achieve great things.  It’s the teacher’s job to help them do so!

Engaging and Well-Structured Learning Activities

Many behavior issues come from students who are either not engaged in what they are doing, or who don’t understand what they should be doing.  Teachers can prevent this situation by investing the time to create engaging and well-structured learning activities.  Engaging activities are those which are suitable for the students’ level and appeal to their interests.  Well-structured activities are those which are clearly defined so that students know exactly what they need to do.  This includes: clear instructions, boundaries for students to work within, time limits, detailed expectations for what students need to accomplish, instructions for what students should do when they are finished.

Routines and Procedures

If teachers can make students’ environment predictable, students’ behavior will become more predictable as well.  One way of doing this is through classroom procedures.  Procedures are ways of doing things efficiently within the classroom.  Everyone should know and follow the procedures.  Once the procedures become habits for students, everyone’s life is easier.  Procedures need to be explicitly taught to students (“here’s how I would like you to pass in papers in our classroom”), and then practiced.  If students do not follow procedures consistently, they are indicating that the procedure needs to be practiced more to be reinforced.

Well-functioning classrooms usually have procedures any activity which occurs regularly.  These include:

  • What students should do when the enter the classroom
  • What they should do before they leave
  • How to pass out papers
  • How the teacher can get students’ attention
  • How to work together
  • How to work independently
  • How to hand in assignments
  • How to ask a question
  • What to do if you need help
  • What students should do when someone (teacher or student) is speaking to the class
  • What to do if you finish your work before other students

Almost everything students do in the class can have a procedure.  The procedure will make expectations clear to students.  Also, if students are doing something they should not be, like calling out in class, the teacher can simply remind the child of the appropriate procedure to follow if they have something to say.  (“It’s not appropriate to call out in class.  If you have something to say, please just raise your hand and I will call on you”).  Note: classroom procedures should be regular and routine to promote order and efficiency; but instructional strategies should be varied to maintain interest and lesson content should be changing so that learning can continue.

Intrinsic Motivators

Intrinsic motivation is motivation which comes from inside students and does not depend on regular external reinforcement.  However, over the long term, external motivators can become internalized.  Since intrinsic motivation is internal, it is difficult to cultivate, however, here are some factors teachers can influence, which contribute to students’ internal motivation:

  • Students’ self-esteem and a positive views of themselves as a learners
  • Positive expectations and support from the teacher
  • Good pedagogical relationships
  • A view that learning is important
  • Students’ feelings that they are accepted and appreciated
  • A supportive and encouraging peer group
  • Supportive and involved parents

It is important to understand what motivates your students, especially those who are less engaged in class.  Once we know what motivates our students, we can determine appropriate strategies for working with them.  Students can be motivated by any number of internal factors, including:

  • The drive to succeed, better themselves, or overcome challenges
  • The drive to be accepted and fit in
  • The drive to do as little as possible
  • The drive to be finished

Extrinsic Motivators

We are all motivated by external factors as well as internal ones.  Ideally, we would like students to be internally motivated to work hard in school, but in reality some students respond very well to external factors.  Students should understand that every action in life has consequences.  Positive consequences (including rewards) come from positive behaviors, and negative consequences (including punishments) come from negative behaviors.  If consequences for positive and negative behaviors are clear to students in advance, they will almost always choose the positive.  For consequences to be most effective they should be immediate and should have a logical connection to the action which caused them.

Positive consequences include:

  • Praise
  • Smiles
  • Good marks
  • Encouragement
  • Being commended in front of peers (if appropriate)
  • Special privileges such as leadership roles

Negative consequences include:

  • Being moved apart from friends who distract the student
  • Being moved to the front of the classroom for closer monitoring
  • Staying inside during break time to practice procedures which the student did not follow
  • Being reprimanded
  • Receiving a stern look from the teacher (Guideline: Never use a word when a gesture will suffice; never use a gesture when a look will suffice.)

Teachers’ Behaviors

In addition to all of the above, there are many other things teachers can do to promote and maintain good behavior from students.  Here is a short list, please add your own strategies to it and share with your colleagues.

  • Move close to misbehaving students
  • Look students in the eyes
  • Speak a child’s name if they are misbehaving or not paying attention
  • If students are off-task, stop the class to provide guidance or close the activity
  • Communicate clearly to avoid confusion
  • Provide clear structure to all activities
  • Change activities or change pace periodically to maintain student engagement
  • Encourage students to remind each other about appropriate behaviors
  • Speaking to students individually to provide encouragement or correction
  • Using appropriate facial expressions and body language for the goals you are trying to accomplish
  • Speaking in a clear, confident voice, with a sincere yet firm tone

课堂行为管理策略

多方面的课堂行为管理

有效的课堂管理对有效学习环境的营造至关重要。要在以学生为中心的教学中进行成功的课堂管理,教师必须使用多方面的、全局的管理方法。课堂管理应重视积极预防的策略,以防止一些行为问题的出现;但同时,也应该重视积极应对的策略,以有善解决出现了的问题。以下各方面都是教师在课堂管理中所需考虑的因素:

教学关系

教学关系是在以学生为中心的教学中进行有效课堂管理的基础。当师生之间建立起恰当良好的教学关系时,学生更可能表现良好,并对教师的话作出快速回应。良好教学关系的建立,要求教师在与学生的互动中显示出对学生的关爱、耐心和自信。教师需要使学生感觉到自己既有决心有信心上好课,又很尊重学生、关心学生的发展。

下面是建立良好教学关系的一些方法:

  • ·    对学生做到诚实、值得信赖;
  • ·    说话算话;
  • ·    身体力行,为学生树立出行为和尊重的榜样;
  • ·    培养诚恳亲切的师生氛围,但要明确你与学生的关系并非家长与孩子的关系,也并非孩子间的朋友关系;
  • ·    让学生知道你希望他们作出最好的表现,而且你将竭尽全力支持他们的学习。

课堂氛围

创建一种积极的课堂氛围也是课堂管理的基本部分。学生在你的课堂上应该觉得轻松自然、充满活力,这在很大程度上取决于你与他们的互动。但是,重要的一点是得记住快乐的学生和有利的氛围不是良好学习环境的目的,而是良好学习环境的结果。如果学生参与到良好的学习体验中,并在那些体验中取得成功,自然会推动良好学习氛围的营建。

这里有一些可以促进良好学习氛围的建立的方法:

  • ·    进教室时,微笑着问候学生;
  • ·    在墙上展示学生的作品;
  • ·    保持教室明亮、干净;
  • ·    通过让学生帮着打扫、布置教室,鼓励他们对教室的主人翁意识,并让学生决定如何安排和放置教室内的物品和材料;
  • ·    利用能激发学生学习兴趣的学习活动,调动学生的积极性;
  • ·    保持课堂的快节奏;
  • ·    关注所有学生,尤其是那些在某些方面可能被边缘化了的学生;
  • ·    每天至少与学生开怀大笑一次。时而不时的幽默会很有帮助,但讥讽则会产生相反的效果。绝不要以讥讽某个学生为代价来达到幽默的效果。

期望

学生喜欢教师对他们的学习进行适当的引导和架构,因为他们想弄清楚教师对他们都有什么期望。通常来说,如果学生清楚教师对他们的期望,他们就会按照对他们所期望的那样去做。正因为如此,明确的教师期望通常会比硬性的规则和要求更能有效地管理学生的行为。积极的教师期望必须是较高的期望,它会为学生确立具有可操作性的实际挑战。学生需要知道你有信心他们能够做得很棒,并且期望他们表现出色。教师的职责就是帮助他们实现这些目标!

激发学生学习兴趣的、结构严密的学习活动

很多行为问题的产生要么是由于学生的学习积极性没有被调动起来,要么是由于他们不懂应该做些什么。所以,教师需要花些精力构思能激发学生学习兴趣的、结构严密的学习活动来防止这种情况的发生。能激发学生学习兴趣的活动是指那些符合学生的实际水平、满足学生的兴趣、明确指出学生具体需要做什么的活动(包括明确的活动指令、学生活动的范围、时间限度、教师需要学生达成的详细期望、学生完成活动任务后所应做的事)。

课堂规则和程序

如果教师能够使课堂环境具有可预测性,那么课上学生的行为就会更具可预测性。达成它的方法之一就是通过课堂规则和程序,适当的课堂规则和程序是保持课堂效率的一种方法,需要学生明了并遵守。一旦遵守适当的课堂规则和程序成为学生的习惯,事情就会变得容易许多。教师需要把课堂规则和程序清楚明白地教给学生(“下面我向你们介绍一下应该如何在课堂上传递材料”),然后引导学生按照你所介绍的方法进行练习。如果学生无法始终如一地遵循该规则和程序,那么可能就需要教师引导学生进行更多的练习加以强化。

一个运作良好的课堂通常会有一些可适用于任何学习活动的课堂规则和程序,包括:

  • ·    学生进入课堂时该做些什么;
  • ·    学生离开课堂时该做些什么;
  • ·    如何传递材料;
  • ·    教师如何能够吸引学生的注意力;
  • ·    学生该如何进行合作;
  • ·    学生该如何独立完成任务;
  • ·    学生该如何交作业;
  • ·    学生该如何提问;
  • ·    学生需要帮助时,该如何做;
  • ·    当有人(教师或学生)在发言时,学生该做些什么;
  • ·    学生先于其他同学完成课内所布置的任务时,应当怎么做。

学生在课堂上做的每件事几乎都有序可循,程序可以使学生清楚教师对他们的期望。如果某个学生在课堂上做了不应该做的事情,比如大声喧哗,教师就可以简单地提醒他如果有什么要说的时,需遵循的适当程序。(“在课堂上大声说话是不合适的。如果你有什么要说的话,请先举手,然后我会叫你”。)注意:为推动秩序和效率的建立,课堂程序应该是持续连贯的,是一种日常的规范。但是,教学策略应当是多样化的,以保持学生的兴趣;课堂内容应该是丰富多变的,以使学习能不断地学到新内容新知识。

内在激励因素

内在激励因素指的是发自学生本身的、无需进行定期外部强化的激励因素。从长远角度来说,一些外部激励因素能够转化成内在激励因素。内在激励因素是内在的,很难从外部进行强加,不过,教师可以通过从以下方面对学生施加影响,进而推动学生内在激励因素的形成:

  • ·      学生的自尊自爱及对自己作为学习者的积极认识;
  • ·      教师的积极期望和支持;
  • ·      良好的教学关系;
  • ·      对学习重要性的认识;
  • ·      学生感觉自己被接受被认同;
  • ·      一个互相支持和鼓励的同学团队;
  • ·      积极参与的、理解支持的家长。

了解学生的内在激励因素,尤其是那些课堂参与性较差的学生,会很重要。了解学生的内在激励因素,有助于教师制定恰当合适的策略去帮助他们。以下内在因素能够对许多学生形成激励:

  • ·      获得成功、提高自我或克服挑战的动力;
  • ·      被认可、被接纳的动力;
  • ·      尽可能事半功倍的动力;
  • ·      完成任务的动力。

外在激励因素

学生不但会受到内在激励因素的影响,也会受到外在激励因素的影响。理想地说来,我们都希望学校的学生会在内在激励因素的推动下,努力地学习,不过,在现实世界中,一些学生对外在激励因素的回应会非常好。教师应该使学生明白他们在生活中的每个行为都会产生一定的结果,积极的结果(如奖励)源自于积极的行为,而消极的结果(如惩罚)源自于消极的行为。预先让学生清楚知道积极行为和消极行为的各自结果,会有助于学生选择积极的行为。为了对学生起到良好的警醒作用,消极结果必须在消极行为发生后即刻进行,而且教师应该让学生意识到消极结果是由消极行为导致的。

积极的结果包括:

  • ·    赞扬;
  • ·    微笑;
  • ·    高分;
  • ·    鼓励;
  • ·    在其他学生面前受到嘉奖(如果合适的话);
  • ·    被赋予特殊权利,如领导其他学生。

消极的结果包括:

  • ·    被与分散了他们注意力的朋友分开;
  • ·    被挪到靠教室前排的地方,以受到教师更密切的监督;
  • ·    在课间休息时,待在教室里练习未能遵守的程序;
  • ·    受到老师的严厉目光(指导原则:当一个眼神足以表达你的意思时,就不要使用手势;当一个手势便足以表达你的意思时,就不要使用言语。);
  • ·    受到批评或责罚。

教师的行为

除了上述内容外,教师还可以采取很多其它措施鼓励并促进学生的良好行为,我们在这里将其以下面的简短列表的形式提供给大家。如果你自己还有一些其它策略的话,不妨把它们也加进去,并与同事进行分享。

  • ·    走近不好好听讲学生的座位;
  • ·    和学生对视;
  • ·    如果某个孩子表现不好或注意力不集中,点他/她的名字;
  • ·    如果发现很多学生都偏离了安排的任务,就让全班学生都停下来,给他们提供指导或结束该活动;
  • ·    表达清晰明了,避免误解;
  • ·    对课堂上的所有学生活动提供清晰的结构,为学生搭建脚手架;
  • ·    定时地改变活动或进度,以保持学生的兴趣;
  • ·    鼓励学生相互提醒遵守适当的行为;
  • ·    单独与学生谈话,对他们加以鼓励或纠正错误;
  • ·    为你努力要完成的目标使用适当的面部表情和肢体语言;
  • ·    用清晰、自信的嗓音讲话,语气要既诚恳又坚定。